First look at pupil size in sleeping mice yields surprises
When people are awake, their pupils regularly change in size. Those changes are meaningful, reflecting shifting attention or vigilance, for example. Now, researchers have found in studies of mice that pupil size also fluctuates during sleep. They also show that pupil size is a reliable indicator of sleep states.
Atomic-level changes in ALS-linked protein
A new study details the minute changes -- down to the level of individual atoms -- that cause a particular protein to form cell-damaging clumps associated with ALS and other diseases.
Neutron-star merger yields new puzzle for astrophysicists
The afterglow from the distant neutron-star merger detected last August has continued to brighten - much to the surprise of astrophysicists studying the aftermath of the massive collision that took place about 138 million light years away and sent gravitational waves rippling through the universe. New observations indicate that the gamma ray burst unleashed by the collision is more complex than scientists initially imagined.
Using Hawkeye from the Avengers to communicate on the eye
Superheroes can be used to communicate learning objectives to students in an interesting, fun, and accessible manner.
Zika virus damages placenta, which may explain malformed babies
New researcher shows how Zika virus infection in five pregnant rhesus monkeys caused placental tissues to become thickened and inflamed, resulting in less oxygen being transported across the placenta and to the baby.
Two new breast cancer genes emerge from lynch syndrome gene study
Researchers have identified two new breast cancer genes that also cause Lynch syndrome.
Scientists find microbes on the skin of mice promote tissue healing, immunity
Beneficial bacteria on the skin of lab mice work with the animals' immune systems to defend against disease-causing microbes and accelerate wound healing, according to new research. Researchers say untangling similar mechanisms in humans may improve approaches to managing skin wounds and treating other damaged tissues.
Can mice really mirror humans when it comes to cancer?
A new study is helping to answer a pressing question among scientists of just how close mice are to people when it comes to researching cancer. The findings reveal how mice can actually mimic human breast cancer tissue and its genes, even more so than previously thought, as well as other cancers including lung, oral and esophagus.
Network model of the musculoskeletal system predicts compensatory injuries
A new study is the first to convert the entire human body's network of bones and muscles into a comprehensive mathematical model.
Fox Creek earthquakes linked to completion volume and location of hydraulic fracturing
The volume of hydraulic fracturing fluid and the location of well pads control the frequency and occurrence of measurable earthquakes, new research has found.
New method to stop cells dividing could help fight cancer
Researchers have used a new strategy to shut down specific enzymes to stop cells from dividing. The method can be used as a strategy to fight cancer.
How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism
Cancer metastasis, the migration of cells from a primary tumor to form distant tumors in the body, can be triggered by a chronic leakage of DNA within tumor cells, according to new research.
Protein designed entirely from scratch functions in cells as a genuine enzyme
Artificial biology is working toward creating a genuinely new organism. Researchers are designing and building proteins that can fold and mimic the chemical processes that sustain life. Now they have confirmed that at least one of their new proteins can catalyze biological reactions in E. coli, meaning that a protein designed entirely from scratch functions in cells as a genuine enzyme.
Root discovery may lead to crops that need less fertilizer
Bean plants that suppress secondary root growth in favor of boosting primary root growth forage greater soil volume to acquire phosphorus, according to researchers, who say their recent findings have implications for plant breeders and improving crop productivity in nutrient-poor soils.
A new, dynamic view of chromatin movements
In cells, proteins tightly package the long thread of DNA into pearl necklace-like complexes known as chromatin. Scientists now show for the first time how chromatin moves, answering longstanding questions about how its structure helps regulate gene expression.
Packing a genome, step-by-step
For the first time, scientists can see in minute-time resolution how cells package chromosomes into highly condensed structures prior to cell division.
New instrument lets doctors view the entire eye with unprecedented level of detail
Researchers have developed the first instrument that can provide a detailed image of the entire eye that can produce higher quality images than currently available.
Researchers create first stem cells using CRISPR genome activation
In a scientific first, researchers have turned skin cells from mice into stem cells by activating a specific gene in the cells using CRISPR technology. The innovative approach offers a potentially simpler technique to produce the valuable cell type and provides important insights into the cellular reprogramming process.
Certain flu virus mutations may compensate for fitness costs of other mutations
Seasonal flu viruses continually undergo mutations that help them evade the human immune system, but some of these mutations can reduce a virus's potency. According to new research, certain mutations in the genome of influenza A may help counteract the weakening effects of other mutations.
Fragile X finding shows normal neurons that interact poorly
Neurons in mice afflicted with the genetic defect that causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS) appear similar to those in healthy mice, but these neurons fail to interact normally, resulting in the long-known cognitive impairments, shows a new study.
Top science news
Trump Passed a Cognitive Exam. What Does That Really Mean?
The exam, called the Moca, is widely used in doctor’s offices, but it is not sophisticated enough to diagnose mental decline, experts say.